RSA7100A Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer
• Internal GPS receiver available
• High performance spectrum analyzer
• Operates with SignalVu-PC
• Up to 800 MHz bandwidth
|DPO70000SX provides ultra-high bandwidth real time signal acquisition and analysis up to 70 GHz analog bandwidth. The patented Asynchronous Time Interleaving (ATI) architecture provides the lowest noise and highest fidelity for real time signal acquisition.
DPO70000SX Series oscilloscopes provide the most accurate real time performance for ultra-bandwidth applications.
Low-noise, high fidelity signal acquisition is critical in ultra-bandwidth applications such as long-haul coherent optical, 400G datacom and wideband RF. The flagship DPO77002SX model uses ATI (Asynchronous Time Interleaving) architecture to achieve 70 GHz and 200 GS/s (5 ps/Sample) real time acquisition performance. This patented, symmetric architecture elegantly creates an inherent noise advantage over legacy bandwidth interleaving methods. The DPO70000SX provides the lowest noise, highest fidelity and maximum performance for complex optical modulation analysis, jitter and noise analysis of high speed serial signaling and frequency, phase and modulation analysis of wideband RF signals.
ATI architecture delivers lowest noise
Previous real time scope solutions for digitizing ultra-high bandwidth signals distribute signal energy to two digitizing paths then use DSP to reconstruct the input signal. Unlike legacy schemes, Tektronix’ unique ATI architecture provides a symmetric technique that delivers all signal energy to both digitizing paths resulting in an inherent noise advantage.
The diagram shows how an input signal enters the ATI ASIC where it is sampled and alternately delivered to each digitizing subsystem. The sample clock runs at 75 GHz and effectively folds the spectrum of the input signal about 37.5 GHz prior to digitizing. Each digitizing path operates at 100 GS/s and the folded spectrum is band limited to <40 GHz to meet Nyquist criteria. The alternating phase of the sampler has the effect of inverting signal phase 180° in one digitizing path, which provides significant benefit in reconstructing the final digitized signal.
With two copies of the entire signal energy digitized, the signal spectra are “unfolded” using a DSP equivalent of the sampling process and combined to reproduce the input signal. Because two copies of the signal are being combined the process effectively averages them together, reducing random noise. Phase-inversion introduced by the sampling process causes intermediate frequency components to directly cancel one another, simplifying reconstruction and calibration.
Thus, ATI architecture provides an inherent SNR advantage over legacy digital-bandwidth interleaving techniques. These techniques immediately split an input signal into upper and lower bands of frequencies. This divides the power and the upper frequency band must be mixed down prior to digitizing while the lower band is directly digitized. This asymmetric approach can make signal reconstruction and calibration more difficult and lead to errors in pass-band frequency or phase response. The division of power removes the opportunity to reduce signal noise. ATI alleviates these issues by using a unique symmetric architecture.
A comparison of baseline noise between the Tektronix DPO77002SX and another vendor’s 63 GHz model, with both instruments set to 60 GHz bandwidth, demonstrates the effectiveness of ATI at providing the lowest noise acquisition.
DPO77002SX vs. other vendor’s 63 GHz model: Baseline noise % of FS vs. mVFS setting, with trace centered, at 60 GHz BW, maximum sample rate setting (200 GS/s or 160 GS/s)
An all-new master sample clock design which provides the remarkably low sample clock jitter of 65fsRMS, combined with the very low noise performance achieved with ATI, allows the DPO77002SX to reach new levels of jitter noise floor performance. The JNF at 300 mVFSis a mere 123 fsRMS, which even rivals lower bandwidth instruments.
The figure shows jitter analysis of 60 GHz sine wave applied to the ATI input. The result shows a clean eye with random jitter RJ <80 fsRMS.
Compact ultra-performance oscilloscope
DPO70000SX Series models establish a unique compact oscilloscope package that enables unprecedented workspace efficiency and mounting versatility. The SX series provides a differentiated approach to ultra-bandwidth real time acquisition that aligns with user trends toward large external monitors, higher degrees of automation and increased separation of data collection and data analysis workspaces.
Stand-alone DPO70000SX compact models provide functionality equivalent to their bench counterparts (DPO70000DX) at half the height through addition of external display, keyboard and mouse. SX series models can host Advanced Analysis software and be automated using internal or external control just as their bench counterparts.
The DPO77002SX 70 GHz ATI Performance Oscilloscope provides one channel at 70 GHz, 200 GS/s acquisition performance or two channels at 33 GHz, 100 GS/s acquisition. The instrument includes a 70 GHz, 1.85 mm low-noise ATI input channel as well as general purpose TekConnect 2.92 mm inputs for versatile probing and signal conditioning options to 33 GHz.
The DPO73304SX model provides two channels at 33 GHz, 100 GS/s acquisition or four channels at 23 GHz, 50 GS/s real time acquisition performance. This model provides acquisition performance similar to the DPO73304DX bench model, but in the new compact instrument form-factor.
All models in the DPO70000SX Series achieve the highest level of trigger performance available in real time oscilloscopes, >25 GHz edge trigger performance and <40 ps glitch trigger performance. An innovative new Window trigger type enables triggering on the envelope of RF signal bursts with time-qualification to discriminate envelope width. Industry-leading pulse-width timer performance enables the most precise discrimination of specific bit-widths in high speed serial data streams and detection of “runt” pulses in the midst of pseudo-random signaling. The DPO70000SX Series Auxiliary Trigger input provides low-jitter edge triggering and uses TekConnect accessories for a wide variety of signal conditioning solutions.
Less than half the height of bench models
DPO70000SX Series instruments are contained in a 5 ¼” (3U) package that optimizes space usage and enables the most versatile range of mounting configurations. Two DPO70000SX instruments stack in less height than similar-class bench instruments, yet achieve higher measurement performance.
Complete standalone oscilloscope
Though compact, SX models provide full standalone oscilloscope functionality and performance. They can directly host Tektronix’ Advanced Analysis applications for tasks such as jitter, noise, optical modulation or spectral analysis and do not require a separate processor or control unit.
Familiar scope controls where you want them
The DPO7AFP Auxiliary Front Panel is a valuable usability accessory that compliments the compact instrument package by enabling users to operate with familiar controls without requiring access to the front of an instrument.
The Auxiliary Front Panel provides the same control set embedded in DPO/DSA/MSO/7000/70000 bench instruments as a separately packaged USB peripheral. This accessory enhances usability even when the instrument front panel may be obscured due to mounting location.
Remote desktop operation
As with current bench-model DPO /MSO70000 Series instruments, DPO70000SX models can be operated remotely over a network using Windows® Remote Desktop. Use the Windows Remote Desktop utility to access your oscilloscope from across the lab or across the globe.
Precision synchronization for multi-unit systems
DPO70000SX Series instruments include the Tektronix UltraSync multi-unit time synchronization bus. UltraSync is used to synchronize sample clock, trigger and run-stop control across multiple units with performance equivalent to that found in monolithic scopes. UltraSync cables are available in 1 meter and 2 meter length to maximize configuration and layout versatility while preserving timing integrity of a multi-unit system.
The UltraSync bus consists of three elements, each providing an important element of precise multi-unit operation:
When operating in a multi-unit instrument configuration, one DPO70000SX has the role of Master, controlling one or more units operating in Extension mode. Any DPO70000SX model can operate as a standalone oscilloscope or serve as Master or Extension in a multi-unit configuration. Roles are determined by UltraSync cabling and no additional elements are needed. This allows users to decouple multi-unit configurations at any time and operate instruments in a standalone fashion without requiring a control unit or other accessories. Or, standalone units can be easily combined by simply adding UltraSync cables between Master and Extension.
During startup of a multi-unit configuration a Configuration Manager application validates Master-Extension cabling and provides graphical feedback if elements are missing or misconfigured. Following validation, the system presents the TekScope user interface where waveforms from Master and Extension units are gathered for display and analysis using built-in features and Advanced Analysis applications.
Scalable performance and versatile configurations
DPO70000SX multi-unit modes enable a variety of extended performance and increased channel-count configurations. Master-Extension configurations provide additional input channels synchronized to the same degree of precision as internal channels and controlled from a single user interface as an interactive instrument or programming interface in automated applications.
This scalable approach to performance allows users to purchase performance suitable for today’s requirements, such as four channels of 33 GHz, 100 GS/s acquisition while also having two channels with 70 GHz, 200 GS/s performance suitable for next-generation designs. Subsequently, two additional units can be added for a total of four channels at 70 GHz, 200 GS/s. Units in this four-unit configuration can be separately deployed as pairs or standalone units at any time to meet other test demands.
The DPO77002SX also offers a unique value proposition in single-channel 70 GHz, 200 GS/s applications such as RF analysis or pulsed laser studies. In these cases a user can purchase a single unit for 70 GHz channel performance along with two channels at 33 GHz. Additional units can be purchased at a later time and combined using UltraSync if higher channel count is needed.
The following multi-unit configurations are supported:
2 DPO77002SX: 2 Ch @ 70 GHz, 200 GS/s or 4 Ch @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s
4 DPO77002SX: 4 Ch @ 70 GHz, 200 GS/s or 4 Ch 1 @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s
2 DPO75902SX: 2 Ch @ 59 GHz, 200 GS/s or 4 Ch @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s
4 DPO75902SX: 4 Ch @ 59 GHz, 200 GS/s or 4 Ch 1 @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s
2 DPO75002SX: 2 Ch @ 50 GHz, 200 GS/s or 4 Ch @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s
4 DPO75002SX: 4 Ch @ 50 GHz, 200 GS/s or 4 Ch 1 @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s
2 DPO73304SX: 4 Ch @ 33 GHz, 100 GS/s or 4 Ch1@ 23 GHz, 50 GS/s
2 DPO72304SX: 4 Ch @ 23 GHz, 100 GS/s or 4 Ch 1 @ 23 GHz, 50 GS/s
1 Maximum of 4 channels displayed on-screen. Access to additional channels data available through program interface.
UltraSync provides outstanding integration and time alignment between units in a multi-unit stack. Once channels have been deskewed in a multi-unit stack, skew is very stable over time and temperature. The specification for skew stability is ≤250 fsRMS. The following DPO77002SX skew measurement plot shows that even when including the startup temperature stabilization period (approximately 1 hour), the pk-pk variation is about 400 fs, and is about 350 fs pk-pk after the 1-hour warm-up period. This plot also shows exceptional consistency over this 12-hour data collection.
Change in channel-to-channel skew of DPO77002SX system over time.
Another important aspect of skew is how the phase relationship between two channels varies with changing frequency (group delay effects). The following plot compares the performance of a DPS77004SX 70 GHz two-unit system against the performance of another vendor’s 63 GHz frequency-interleaved channels. What you see here is that the UltraSync two-channel skew performance dramatically surpasses the performance of another vendor’s single 63 GHz model containing two channels.
Channel skew vs. Frequency comparison between DPO77002SX system and other vendor’s 63 GHz model.
Short signal path
Minimizing input signal path length is especially important when working at 70 GHz ultra-high bandwidth. The compact nature of DPO70000SX creates more versatile mounting options when co-locating instrument and device under test (DUT). Options such as the Auxiliary Front Panel and Remote Desktop connection allow further flexibility by eliminating the need for direct access to the instrument front panel once connected. As a result, the SX series enables the broadest range of options when dealing with a variety of DUT configurations as compared to classic bench instruments.
Input signal path length may be minimized in multi-unit configurations by inverting one unit of a pair. The low, central location of the 70 GHz ATI input provides very small input connector spacing when operating units in this configuration.
Instruments can also be arranged at various angles to suit DUT layout, such as at right angles for card-and-backplane situation or face-to-face around a small DUT. Layouts such as this create the shortest input signal path and maximize SNR. In addition, effects of signal path elements such as cables and adapters can be characterized and removed using the Serial Data Link Analysis application to obtain the best analysis results and insight.
PCI Express® Transmitter Compliance and Debug (Option PCE3) – Analyze the performance of your PCI Express®Rev 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 (draft spec) design with comprehensive test support. Using DPOJET, Option PCE3 enables tests that conform to PCI-SIG standards.
USB 3.0 Transmitter Test Solution (Option USB3) – Perform verification, characterization, and debug of USB 3.0 devices. Measurements are implemented in DPOJET and are compliant to the USB 3.0 specification. For compliance and automation, USB-TX is available.
PAM4 and NRZ measurements
As datacom networks increase their throughput, the DPO70000SX is ready to perform standards validation for many of today’s 25/28 G industry standards (see chart below). With 50 GHz and 70 GHz models featuring the low-noise ATI architecture; the DPO70000SX, combined with DPOJET Jitter & Noise Analysis and the SDLA Serial Data Link Analysis tools, can perform accurate de-embedding and eye diagram evaluation on many of these key standards.
With 400 G networking, new serial data transmission speeds will reach 56 Gb/s per channel, making NRZ signaling techniques ineffective, leading to bandwidth efficient PAM4 (4 level pulse amplitude modulation). Accurate PAM4 validation is best conducted using the DPO70000SX Series with its industry-leading low noise ATI technology to achieve the best test margin on your measurement results. For analysis of PAM4, the DPO70000SX Option PAM4 combines industry leading equalization tools and built-in DSP based clock recovery which is essential to recovering complex timing and performing analysis of low signal-to-noise ration PAM4 signals.
High Speed Serial Link Training Analysis – option HSSLTA – is a tool for 100G Electrical Datacom customers. It offers a powerful debugging capability for network equipment providers and silicon vendors concerned about interoperability issues in their designs. Link training is a complex sequence of negotiations between transmitter and receiver to determine optimal transceiver settings. HSSLTA uses the power of DPO70000SX triggering to identify link training exchanges between devices, then analyzes and displays the protocol, timing, and PHY signaling associated with negotiation of 100 Gb/s links. This insight allows designers to verify the link training process and to quickly pinpoint problems when links fail to train.
The Most Efficient way to isolate link training issues:
Link Training (option HSSLTA) – Offers an interactive Results Table based on FastFrame records. – Fast-Frame Records: Time-aligned Hex and Bit-level decode, Marks (Frame, Control Channel, and Training Data). Results Table: All negotiation data is captured in Results Table, Click row to view waveform, Scroll through table rows, Verify Negotiation Requests/Responses, and Export Negotiation Data.
Ethernet Compliance Test Solution (Option ET3) – Receive full PHY layer support for Ethernet variants 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T with the comprehensive, integrated Tektronix® Ethernet tool set. Analog verification, automated compliance software, and device characterization solutions are all included.
Ethernet Transmitter Test Application (Option XGBT2 and NBASET) – Automates 10GBASE-T, NBASE-T, and IEEE802.3bz (2.5G/5G) physical medium attachment (PMA) and physical-layer (PHY) electrical testing to provide a fast and accurate way of testing your Ethernet designs.
10GBASE-KR/KR4 Compliance and Debug Solution (Option 10G-KR) – Automated compliance measurements for IEEE 802.3ap-2007 specifications. This option includes an automated compliance solution and debugging with DPOJET. The automated test setup measures transmitter equalization levels generating 12 results for each tap and 120 results for 9 different measurements in approximately 15 minutes.
SFP+/QSFP+ Transmitter Compliance and Debug Solution (Option SFP-TX and SFP-WDP) – Automates compliance testing of devices built using the SFF-8431 & SFF-8634 specifications. Transmitter Waveform Distortion Penalty (TWDPc) measurements for copper are available with Option SFP-WDP.
Coherent optical modulation analysis
Tektronix DPO70000SX oscilloscopes are ideal for modulation format analysis of 400 Gb/s and Terabit-based coherent optical networking systems. The unique architecture enables scalability to grow instrument performance by adding channels or more bandwidth; test 100 G cost effectively now and expand into 400 G or 1 Terabit later. The DPO70000SX low profile reduces concerns of signal loss in system connectivity on your coherent measurements by placing the Optical Receiver as close as possible to the instrument’s input channel.
More accurate modulation analysis starts with a lower Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) floor in the instrument. The DPO70000SX Oscilloscope utilizes ATI technology to provide the industry’s lowest noise floor supporting these measurements. In addition, the system is achieving four channels of full 70 GHz Bandwidth at 200 GS/s per channel, providing a very rich analysis environment. When used in conjunction with the OM4524 Optical Modulation Receiver, optical system research engineers can customize their DSP analysis and visualization for non-standard modulation techniques using easy customer-specific implementations with extensive customizable analysis SW that leverages Matlab™.
HDMI Compliance Test Solution (Option HT3) – A fast, efficient solution for HDMI compliance measurement challenges, no matter if you are working on a Source, Cable, or Sink solution. This application provides all the HDMI compliance test solutions you need to ensure quality and interoperability.
DisplayPort Compliance Test Solution (Option DP12) – Supports DisplayPort Compliance Test Standard (CTS) source test with four-line simultaneous testing using the Tektronix® P7300SMA Series probes and DisplayPort software. Detailed test reports with waveform plots, pass/fail results, and margin analysis are included.
DDR Memory Bus Analysis (Option DDRA) – Automatically identifies DDR1, LPDDR, LPDDR2, LPDDR3, DDR2, DDR3, DDR4, and GDDR3 Reads and Writes and makes JEDEC conformance measurements with pass/fail results on all edges in every Read and Write burst. DDRA provides capabilities for measurements of clock, address, and control signals. In addition to enabling conformance testing DDRA with DPOJET is the fastest way to debug complex memory signaling issues.
MIPI® D-PHY Characterization and Analysis Solution (Option D-PHY) – Verify to the D-PHY specification by rapidly characterizing and discovering sources of jitter and signal integrity concerns using the fully flexible and customizable test setup. Using DPOJET, Option D-PHY enables transmitter high-speed data-clock timing measurements, along with a full range of electrical characteristics in high-speed or low-power modes.
MIPI® M-PHY Debug, Analysis, Characterization and Conformance Test Solution (Option M-PHY) – Verify to the M-PHY specification by rapidly characterizing and discovering sources of jitter and signal integrity concerns. Using DPOJET, Option M-PHY enables transmitter signaling and timing measurements such as differential transmit eye diagrams, rise and fall times, slew rate, amplitude parameters, common mode voltages on each lane for both the large and small amplitude configurations, as well as the terminated and unterminated cases.
With its low noise and flat frequency response to 70 GHz, the DPO70000SX opens opportunities for measurement and analysis of wideband RF signals.
SignalVu® vector signal analysis
When vector signal analysis of RF or baseband signals are needed, the optional SignalVu application enables measurements in multiple domains (frequency, time, phase, modulation) simultaneously. SignalVu measurements are fully correlated with the scope’s time domain acquisition and triggering. Time domain events, such as commands to an RF subsystem, can be used as trigger events, while the subsystem’s RF signal can be seen in the frequency domain.
In addition to spectrum analysis, spectrograms display both frequency and amplitude changes over time. Time-correlated measurements can be made across the frequency, phase, amplitude, and modulation domains. This is ideal for signal analysis that includes frequency hopping, pulse characteristics, modulation switching, settling time, bandwidth changes, and intermittent signals.
SignalVu can process RF, I and Q, and differential I and Q signals from any oscilloscope inputs. Math functions applied by the oscilloscope are also used by SignalVu allowing users to apply custom filtering prior to vector signal analysis.
The Microsoft Windows environment makes the use of this multi-domain analysis even easier with an unlimited number of analysis windows, all time-correlated, to provide deeper insight into signal behavior. With a user interface that adapts to your preferences (keyboard, front panel, touch screen, and mouse), SignalVu is easy to apply for both first-time users and experienced hands.
Time-correlated, multi-domain view provides a new level of insight into design or operational problems not possible with conventional analysis solutions. Here, the hop patterns of a narrowband signal can be observed using Spectrogram (lower left) and its hop characteristics can be precisely measured with Frequency vs Time display (upper left). The time and frequency responses can be observed in the two right-hand views as the signal hops from one frequency to the next.
Radar and high frequency-based analysis
The low-noise, high bandwidth DPO70000SX Series Oscilloscope is ideal for high frequency FFT-based measurement analysis. When combined with the powerful SignalVu software analysis option, the DPO70000SX instrument provides FFT (fast fourier transform) measurement capability up to 70 GHz. With its scalable instrument architecture, RF engineers can obtain a single channel unit for RF input-only measurements and grow to multi-unit configurations for comprehensive RF system validation.
Examples of high-frequency RF measurements with the DPO70000SX include:
Once low-noise waveform data is captured by the 70 GHz DPO70000SX, SignalVu can be used to demodulate the signal, and display a constellation diagram and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) measurement and other needed measurements. SignalVu also provides detailed analysis in multiple domains as additional options, such as pulse analysis and settling time for Radar systems work, digital modulation analysis and flexible OFDM analysis for emerging modulation standards, as well as AM/FM/PM modulation and audio measurements for lower bandwidth requirements.
Options tailored for your wideband applications
SignalVu vector signal analysis software offers options to meet your specific application, whether it be wideband radar characterization, broadband satellite, or spectrum management. SignalVu Essentials (Opt. SVE) provides the fundamental capability for all measurements and is required for pulse analysis (Opt. SVP), settling time (Opt. SVT), digital modulation analysis (Opt. SVM), flexible OFDM analysis (Opt. SVO), and AM/FM/PM Modulation and Audio Measurements (Opt. SVA). Wideband satellite and point-to-point microwave links can be directly observed with SignalVu analysis software.
WiGig IEEE802.11ad transmitter testing
Option SV30 provides WiGig IEEE802.11ad standard transmitter measurements. Used together with the DPO77002SX, it delivers industry’s best accurate signal quality measurement at 60 GHz. It allows you to automatically detect the packet start, synchronize to preamble using the Golay codes in the short training field and demodulate preamble, header, and payload separately. These different fields are color coded in the user interface. This option also measures EVM in each of the packet fields per the standard, and decodes the header packet information. In addition RF power, Received Power Indicator, Frequency error, IQ DC origin offset, IQ Gain and Phase imbalance are reported in the Summary display. Pass/Fail results are reported using customizable limits and the presets make the test set-up push-button. Both Control PHY and Single Carrier PHY are supported and the measurements listed above can be done at RF or at IF. For further insight into the signal, you can also visualize the EVM spread across the analyzed packet with color codes differentiating fields and color coded demodulated symbols in tabular form with an option to traverse to the start of each field for easier navigation.
DPO770002SX with SV30 provides industry best EVM accuracy, it allows easy setup to perform transmitter measurements including time overview of the bursts, spectrum, constellation diagram, decoded burst information and EVM measurements.
WiGig 802.11ad (Opt. SV30)
1Measurement uncertainty: ± 0.3% due to pre-compensation filter
A full suite of Advanced Analysis applications are available for insight into specific signal and system behavior. These tools compliment an extensive range of features built into each DPO70000-series instrument to fully characterize performance of a device or system under test.
DPOJET Comprehensive Jitter and Noise Analysis
DPOJET provides engineers the highest measurement sensitivity and accuracy available in real-time instruments. With comprehensive jitter and eye-diagram analysis and decomposition algorithms DPOJET simplifies discovering signal integrity concerns and jitter and their related sources in today’s high-speed serial, digital, and communication system designs.
Noise analysis with DPOJET (Opt. DJAN)
Option DJAN adds a comprehensive toolset for noise analysis to DPOJET. In the past, users have relied on jitter measurements and visualization alone to understand the behavior of their device under test. The test methodologies defined by many of the standard bodies have largely been concerned with the impact of jitter on horizontal eye closure. As data rates increase, the eye that is being analyzed has become smaller and smaller, making analysis of both vertical and horizontal eye closures a requirement. Understanding both the impact of jitter and noise enables engineers to predict the overall eye opening at a target bit error ratio.
Jitter essentials, advanced analysis and custom extensions
DPOJET Essentials is standard on the DPO70000SX Series with the DPOJET advanced version available as an option. Application-specific measurement packages are also available that extend DPOJET and perform the extensive set of tests required by industry standard groups.
SDLA signal path de-embed and custom filters
Acceleration of signaling speeds and shrinking geometries create several challenges for next generation multi-gigabit designs and test methodologies. Designs are evolving to address these challenges with advanced equalization techniques at the transmitter and receiver. Smaller form factors make signal access more difficult, resulting in non-ideal probing points. This can lead to loss and reflections on the acquired signal due to impedance discontinuities that are not present at the ideal measurement location. The advanced techniques employed by the designs call for advanced measurement solutions. The challenge begins with the signal acquisition; capturing a signal through cables, probes and fixtures distort the signal shape. SDLA Visualizer allows you to de-embed the effects (reflections, insertion loss, and cross coupling) of the measurement circuit (cables, probes, and fixtures) from the waveform while taking into account the transmitter output and receiver input impedance. De-embedding these effects improves the accuracy of measurements and can make the difference between passing or failing a test.
Signal path equalization
Using the optional Serial Data Link Analysis Visualizer (SDLA64) application, you can gain further insight into serial data links with the capability to emulate the serial data channel from its S-parameters, remove reflections, cross- coupling, and loss caused by fixtures, cables, or probes, and open closed eyes caused by channel effects using receiver equalization techniques, such as CTLE, DFE, FFE. IBIS-AMI models for silicon-specific receiver equalization can used to observe on-chip behavior.
The eye diagrams below illustrate the correlated eye of a signal before a channel, after a channel, and after equalization. Eye closure due to channel effects have effectively been removed using SDLA and in this case the eye widths are within ~3 ps as shown in the eye diagram on the left and right hand sides.
Create your own filters or use the filters provided standard with the DPO70000SX Series to enhance your ability to isolate or remove a component of your signal (noise or specific harmonics of the signal). These customizable FIR filters can be used to implement signal-processing techniques, such as removing signal pre-emphasis or minimizing the effects of fixtures and cables connected to the device under test.
SignalCorrect™ software and TCS70902 Calibration Source
SignalCorrect allows quick characterization of cables, fixtures and other types of interconnects using the TCS70902 fast step source and the response captured on a DPO70000SX Series real-time oscilloscope.
SignalCorrect creates a filter that you can apply to your oscilloscope inputs to de-embed your device or interconnect under test.
The high resolution counter/timer is a new optional feature that is made possible by the new trigger system in the DPO70000SX series oscilloscopes. This is a precision frequency counter which provides frequency analysis up to 25 GHz, with up to 13 digits of resolution and 12 digits/second. Using the internal clock, this counter is accurate to better than 1 ppm. Higher accuracy is possible using a high precision external clock source. Because this measurement is made through the trigger system, it measures each and every cycle of the signal on a continuous basis during the trigger gate time, rather than making measurements on finite blocks of data through the normal acquisition channel.
This feature provides the ability to make highly accurate clock stability measurements. In the screen capture shown, a deviation of 212 μHz of source wander is measured on an 8 GHz precision source. In this figure, the signal generator was set to 8.00000000001 GHz, and the scope measured precisely that amount.
The timer allows precise measurements between trigger events with a 200 fs resolution, and can include time measurements from an A event to a B event, where A and B events can be any valid trigger mode (e.g. Glitch, Runt, Edge, etc). This feature is useful for measuring propagation delays, or analyzing anomaly occurrence rates.
Three important distinctions between this counter/timer and conventional counter/timers are:
Built-in analysis system
DPO70000SX includes a wide variety of built-in features for visualizing and measuring signal behaviors. Select from 54 automatic measurements using a graphical palette that logically organizes measurements into Amplitude, Time, Histogram, and Communications categories. Gather further insight into your measurement results with statistical data such as mean, min, max, standard deviation, and population.
Define and apply math expressions to waveform data for on-screen results in terms that you can use. Access common waveform math functions with the touch of a button. Or, for advanced applications, create algebraic expressions consisting of live waveforms, reference waveforms, math functions, measurement values, scalars, and user-adjustable variables with an easy-to-use calculator-style editor.
With deep acquisition memory, margin testing can be done over many cycles and long duration trends in the data can be observed. Plus, data from the oscilloscope can be captured into Microsoft Excel using the unique Excel toolbar, and formatted into custom reports using the Word toolbar provided with the DPO70000SX Series.
Custom math expressions with MATLAB
Tektronix custom math expressions with MATLAB enable users to create MATLAB scripts that process live waveform data and return results into scope math traces. Extensions can also use MATLAB features to create specialized analysis and visualizations.
Throughout the design cycle, DPO70000SX Series oscilloscopes provide the ability to debug malfunctioning subsystems and isolate the cause. With the high waveform capture rate of FastAcq® you can quickly identify signal anomalies that occur intermittently – saving minutes, hours, or even days by quickly revealing the nature of faults so sophisticated trigger modes can be applied to isolate them. Using Pinpoint® triggers, infrequent events such as glitches or signal runts caused by bus contention or signal integrity issues can be captured, analyzed, and then eliminated.
FastAcq® expedites debugging by clearly showing imperfections
More than just color grading or event scanning, the FastAcq proprietary DPX® acquisition technology captures signals at more than 300,000 waveforms per second on all TekConnect® channels1simultaneously, dramatically increasing the probability of discovering infrequent fault events. And with a simple turn of the intensity knob you can clearly “see a world others don’t see”, displaying the complete picture of your circuit’s operation. Some oscilloscope vendors claim high waveform capture rates for short bursts of time, but only DPO70000 Series oscilloscopes, enabled by DPX technology, can deliver these fast waveform capture rates on a sustained basis.
1FastAcq not available on ATI channels.
Whether you’re trying to find a problem signal or need to isolate a section of a complex signal for further analysis, Tektronix Pinpoint triggering provides the solution. Pinpoint triggering allows selection of virtually all trigger types on both A and B trigger events delivering the full suite of advanced trigger types for finding sequential trigger events. Pinpoint triggers provide trigger reset capabilities that begin the trigger sequence again after a specified time, state, or transition so that even events in the most complex signals can be captured.
The DPO70000SX Series provides the highest trigger system performance available in a real time scope. The figure shows triggering on <50 ps bit-wide runt pulses (fails to cross both thresholds within specified time) on 25.78 GBaud (100GbE) signaling. High system bandwidth and extreme trigger timer precision enable reliable capture of signal aberrations and efficient isolation of fault conditions.
DPO70000SX includes a unique Envelope trigger mode that enables direct triggering on the envelope of a modulated carrier. Edge, Width and Timeout trigger types can be applied to a detected envelope to provide stable trigger on modulated bursts or discriminate bursts of a specific width. Carrier frequency can range from 500 MHz to 20 GHz to address a broad range of applications. The figure illustrates triggering on burst of specific width.
Visual Trigger further extends the Pinpoint Triggering’s capabilities, adding another level of trigger qualification to find important events in a wide variety of complex signals. Visual Trigger qualifies Pinpoint triggers by scanning through all waveform acquisitions and comparing them to on-screen areas (geometric shapes). Up to eight areas can be created using a mouse or touchscreen, and a variety of shapes (triangles, rectangles, hexagons, or trapezoids) can be used to specify the desired trigger behavior. Once shapes are created, they can be edited interactively to create ideal trigger conditions
When the key events you are interested in are widely spaced in time, such as bursts of activity on a bus, the FastFrame segmented memory feature on the DPO70000SX Series enables you to capture the events of interest while conserving acquisition memory. Using multiple trigger events, FastFrame captures and stores short bursts of signals and saves them as frames for later viewing and analysis. Capturing thousands of frames is possible, so long-term trends and changes in the bursting signal can be analyzed.
Advanced search and mark
Isolating the key event causing your system failure can often be a tedious task. With the Advanced Event Search and Mark feature standard on the DPO70000SX Series, examining data and highlighting important events, skipping the unimportant ones, and enhancing the comprehension of event relationships is made easy. With ASM, you’ll be able to navigate through long record length acquisitions effortlessly and quickly locate the event you have been trying to find. Advanced searches can be defined individually or using the scope’s trigger settings as the definition for the search. Even Visual Trigger areas can be used as part of the ASM criteria.
Advanced Search and Mark – Highlights important events and provides convenient previous and next buttons and mouse clicks to navigate between events of interest effortlessly
Probing and remote-head coaxial input
Often the biggest challenge in debugging a system is getting access to the required signals. Tektronix offers a wide array of probing solutions, including the P7700, P7600, and P7500 TriMode™ probing system with bandwidths that are perfectly matched to the DPO70000SX Series. The P7700, P7600, and P7500 TriMode probes allow you to switch among differential, single ended, and common-mode measurements without moving the probe from its connection points. The P7600 Series combines low noise, 33 GHz bandwidth and the convenience of Trimode probing. The P7500 Series offers probes with performance from 4 GHz to 25 GHz and offers several low-cost solder tips with quick connection features that allow moving the probe to various solder points fast and easy.
The low-cost solder tips available for the P7500 TriMode probes allow quick connection so moving the probe to various solder points is fast and easy.
P7700 Series TriMode Probes
The P7700 Series TriMode probes provide the highest probe fidelity available for real-time oscilloscopes. In addition, with connectivity innovations such as solder down tips with the probe’s input buffer mounted only a few millimeters from the end of the tip, the P7700 Series probes provide unmatched usability for connecting to today’s most challenging electronic designs.
P77STFLXA solder down, flex circuit accessory with an active buffer amplifier on its tip provides up to 20 GHz bandwidth.
The DPO77002SX 70 GHz ATI input channel uses industry-standard 1.85 mm coaxial connection system specified to 67 GHz, with typical performance to 70 GHz. The instrument includes a calibration-grade 1.85 mm female-female adapter installed in the ATI input connector (male) to provide mechanical protection and gender selection. Instruments also include a static protection wrist strap, torque wrench and a set of backing wrenches to facilitate proper care and installation of signal path elements, ensuring optimal measurement performance. The 1.85 mm connection system is compatible with 2.4 mm (50 GHz) elements.
DPO70000SX models include the TekConnect signal interconnect system, offering unparalleled versatility with a wide array of accessory signal access and conditioning solutions. The TCA292D TekConnect adapter provides 2.92 mm connection, 50 Ω coaxial environment to 33 GHz.
High performance Auxiliary Trigger input
DPO70000SX includes an Auxiliary Trigger input (TekConnect) suitable for high performance Edge triggering without consuming an acquisition channel. Aux trigger bandwidth is >10 GHz on the DPO70000SX Series with <1.5 psRMSjitter.
Channel timing deskew
All DPO70000SX models include differential fast-edge outputs matched to <1.6 ps on the front panel that provide a convenient source for aligning channel timing in a coaxial environment. Instruments include accessories to accomplish channel-to-channel timing deskew using the built-in source. Additional accessories can be purchased separately to accomplish even finer time alignment or deskew in a probe-based environment
DPO7RF Signal Path Solutions
The DPO7RF Signal Path Solutions kits provide you with preconfigured kits of components you can use to optimize measurement performance in your ultra-high bandwidth applications. Kits include attenuators, adapters, DC Blocks, power divider, cleaning swabs, color marking bands, S-parameters and documentation.
DPO7RFK3-1.85 mm deskew kit.
Bench or rack mount
DPO70000SX models are equally suited for bench and rack-mounted use and complimented with a number of elements to address specific environments.
UltraSync cables are available in 1 meter and 2 meter lengths to enable configuration flexibility. The default 1 meter cable is suitable for typical two- and four-unit configurations with uniformly stacked instruments. The longer cable enables combinations operating at 90° to one another or face-to-face around a DUT. Cable length can be mixed in a configuration to suit application need and time de-skewed as a system to provide precise channel-to-channel time alignment.
Instrument cases include recesses that align with feet such that stacked units mechanically engage one another for added stability. This feature also works in inverted-stacking configurations and mixed stacks that include an OM4000 Optical Receiver. Models include threaded holes for user-provided side brackets in cases where specific combinations are to be “locked” together.
DPO70000SX units may even be operated inverted if desired, to shorten OMA receiver connection distance as shown.
The DPO70000SX rack mount is a tray directly attached to the instrument. The tray occupies 1U rack height in addition to the 3U instrument and preserves a cooling channel for the unit. The rack mount also provides heavy-duty carry handles for transporting the instrument outside the rack environment.
The rack-mounting kit allows units to be mounted upright or inverted to minimize input cable length, just as when stacking on a bench.
The DPO70000SX rack-mount tray can also house a front-mounted Solid State Drive (SSD) for easy access to instrument mass storage in a rack environment.